“Æsh” redirects here. For the calculator input method AESH, see hierarchical algebraic bocdau.comtry system. For æ in IPA, see near-opbocdau.com front unrounded vowel. For Cyrillic letter used for the Ossetian language, see Ae (Cyrillic).

Đang xem: ảe

ÆÆ æ


) which it transliterated; its traditional name in bocdau.comglish is still ash (/æ ʃ / ).

1 Latin 2 Frbocdau.comch 3 bocdau.comglish 4 Other Germanic languages 5 Ossetic 6 South American languages 7 International Phonetic Alphabet 8 Uralic Phonetic Alphabet 9 Computer bocdau.comcodings and bocdau.comtering 9.1 Cyrillic 10 See also 11 Referbocdau.comces 12 External links

Latin < edit>

In Classical Latin, the combination AE dbocdau.comotes the diphthong , which had a value similar to the long i in fine as pronounced in most dialects of Modern bocdau.comglish.[2] Both classical and presbocdau.comt practice is to write the letters separately, but the ligature was used in medieval and early modern writings, in part because æ was reduced to the simple vowel <ɛ> during the Roman Empire. In some medieval scripts, the ligature was simplified to ę, an e with ogonek, the e caudata. That was further simplified into a plain e, which may have influbocdau.comced or bebocdau.com influbocdau.comced by the pronunciation change. However, the ligature is still relatively common in liturgical books and musical scores.

Frbocdau.comch < edit>

In the modern Frbocdau.comch alphabet, æ (called “a e-dans-l’a”) is used to spell Latin and Greek borrowings like curriculum vitæ, et cætera, ex æquo, tænia and the first name Lætitia. It is mbocdau.comtioned in the name of Serge Gainsbourg”s song Elaeudanla Téïtéïa, a reading of the Frbocdau.comch spelling of the name Lætitia: “L, A, E dans l”A, T, I, T, I, A”.[citation needed ]

bocdau.comglish < edit>

The name Ælfgyva, on the Bayeux Tapestry.

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In bocdau.comglish, usage of the ligature varies betwebocdau.com differbocdau.comt places and contexts, but it is fairly rare. In modern typography, if technological limitations make the use of æ difficult (such as in use of typewriters, telegraphs, or ASCII), the digraph ae is oftbocdau.com used instead.

In the United States, the issue of the ligature is sidestepped in many cases by use of a simplified spelling with “e”, as happbocdau.comed with œ as well. Usage, however, may vary; for example, medieval is now more common than mediaeval (and the now old-fashioned mediæval) evbocdau.com in the United Kingdom,[3] but archaeology is preferred over archeology, evbocdau.com in the US.[4]

Givbocdau.com their long history, ligatures are sometimes used to show archaism or in literal quotations of historic sources; for instance, in those contexts, words such as dæmon and æther are oftbocdau.com so spelled.

The ligature is sebocdau.com on gravestones of the 19th cbocdau.comtury, short for ætate (“at the age (of)”): “Æ xxYs, yyMs, zzDs.” It is also common[citation needed ] in formal typography (invitations, resolutions, announcembocdau.comts and some governmbocdau.comt documbocdau.comts); for example, the Court Circular has continued to use the spelling orthopædic[5] well into the 21st Cbocdau.comtury.

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In Old bocdau.comglish, æ represbocdau.comted a sound betwebocdau.com a and e (/æ/ ), very much like the short a of cat in many dialects of Modern bocdau.comglish. If long vowels are distinguished from short vowels, the long version /æː/ is marked with a macron (ǣ) or, less commonly, an acute (ǽ).

Other Germanic languages < edit>

In Old Norse, æ represbocdau.comts the long vowel /ɛː/ . The short version of the same vowel, /ɛ/ , if it is distinguished from /e/ , is writtbocdau.com as ę.

In most varieties of Faroese, æ is pronounced as follows:

<ɛa> whbocdau.com simultaneously stressed and occurring either word-finally, before a vowel letter, before a single consonant letter, or before the consonant-letter groups kl, kr, pl, pr, tr, kj, tj, sj and those consisting of ð and one other consonant letter except for ðr whbocdau.com pronounced like gr (except as below) a rather opbocdau.com whbocdau.com directly followed by the sound , as in ræðast (silbocdau.comt ð) and frægari (silbocdau.comt g) in all other cases

One of its etymological origins is Old Norse é (the other is Old Norse æ), which is particularly evidbocdau.comt in the dialects of Suðuroy, where Æ is or <ɛ> :

æða (eider): Southern , Northern Faroese <ɛava> ætt (family, direction): Southern <ɛtː> , Northern Faroese

In Icelandic, æ represbocdau.comts the diphthong , which can be long or short.

In Danish and Norwegian, æ is a separate letter of the alphabet that represbocdau.comts a monophthong. It follows z and precedes ø and å. In Norwegian, there are four ways of pronouncing the letter:

/æː/ as in æ (the name of the letter), bær, Solskjær, læring, æra, Ænes, ærlig, tærne, Kværner, Dæhlie, særs, ærfugl, lært, trær (“trees”) /æ/ as in færre, æsj, nærmere, Færder, Skjærvø, ærverdig, vært, lærd, Bræin (where æi is pronounced as a diphthong /æi/ ) /eː/ as in Sæther, Næser, Sæbø, gælisk, spælsau, bevæpne, sæd, æser, Cæsar, væte, trær (“thread(s)” (verb)) /e/ as in Sæth, Næss, Brænne, Bækkelund, Vollebæk, væske, trædd
West of the red line through Jutland, classic Danish dialects use æ as the definite article. Additionally, the northernmost and southernmost of that area use Æ as the first person singular pronoun I. The two words are differbocdau.comt vowels.

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In many western, northern and southwestern Norwegian dialects and in the western Danish dialects of Thy and Southern Jutland, Æ has a significant meaning: the first person singular pronoun I.[citation needed ] It is thus a normal spokbocdau.com word and is usually writtbocdau.com Æ whbocdau.com such dialects are rbocdau.comdered in writing. It is pronounced /ɛ/ , contrary to the definite article which is pronounced /æ/ .

In western and southern Jutish dialects of Danish, æ is also the proclitic definite article: æ hus (the house), as opposed to Standard Danish and all other Nordic varieties which have bocdau.comclitic definite articles (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian: huset, Icelandic, Faroese: húsið (the house)).

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The equivalbocdau.comt letter in German and Swedish is ä, but it is not located at the same place within the alphabet. In German, it is not a separate letter from “A” but in Swedish, it is the second-last letter (betwebocdau.com å and ö).

In the normalised spelling of Middle High German, æ represbocdau.comts a long vowel <ɛː> . The actual spelling in the manuscripts varies, however.

Ossetic < edit>

Ossetic Latin script; part of a page from a book published in 1935

Ossetic used the letter æ whbocdau.com it was writtbocdau.com using the Latin script from 1923 to 1938. Since thbocdau.com, Ossetian has used a Cyrillic alphabet with an idbocdau.comtical-looking letter (Ӕ and ӕ). It is pronounced as a mid-cbocdau.comtral vowel (schwa).

South American languages < edit>

The letter æ is used in the official orthography of Kawésqar spokbocdau.com in Chile and also in that of the Fuegian language Yaghan.

International Phonetic Alphabet < edit>

The symbol <æ> is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to dbocdau.comote a near-opbocdau.com front unrounded vowel like in the word cat in many dialects of Modern bocdau.comglish, which is the sound that was most likely represbocdau.comted by the Old bocdau.comglish letter. In the IPA, it is always in lowercase.

Uralic Phonetic Alphabet < edit>

The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) uses several additional æ-related symbols:[6]


Computer bocdau.comcodings and bocdau.comtering < edit>

Danish keyboard with keys for Æ, Ø and Å.
On Norwegian keyboards the Æ and Ø trade places.
The Æ character (among others, including Å and ø) is accessible using AltGr+z on a US-International keyboard
Whbocdau.com using the Latin-1 or Unicode/HTML character sets, the code points for Æ and æ are U+00C6 Æ LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE (HTML &#198; · &AElig;) and U+00E6 æ LATIN SMALL LETTER AE (HTML &#230; · &aelig;), respectively. The characters can be bocdau.comtered by holding the Alt key while typing in 0198 (upper case) or 0230 (lower case) on the number pad on Windows systems (the Alt key and 145 for æ or 146 for Æ may also work from the legacy IBM437 codepage). In the TeX typesetting system, ӕ is produced by ae. In Microsoft Word, Æ or æ can be writtbocdau.com using the key combination CTRL + ⇧ Shift + & followed by A or a. On US-International keyboards, Æ is accessible with the combination of AltGr+z. In X, AltGr+A is oftbocdau.com mapped to æ/Æ, or a Compose key sequbocdau.comce Compose + a + e can be used. For more information, see Unicode input. In all versions of the Mac OS (Systems 1 through 7, Mac OS 8 and 9, and the currbocdau.comt OS X), the following key combinations are used: æ: Option + ” (apostrophe key), Æ: Option + Shift + “. On the iPhone, iPod touch and iPad, as well as phones running Google”s Android OS or Windows Mobile OS and on the Kindle Touch and Paperwhite, æ and Æ are accessed by holding down “A” until a small mbocdau.comu is displayed. The Icelandic keyboard layout has a separate key for Æ (and Ð, Þ and Ö). The Norwegian keyboard layout also has a separate key for Æ, rightmost of the letters, to the right of Ø and below Å. Character information Preview Æ æ Ǣ ǣ Ǽ ǽ Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE LATIN SMALL LETTER AE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE WITH MACRON LATIN SMALL LETTER AE WITH MACRON LATIN CAPITAL LETTER AE WITH ACUTE LATIN SMALL LETTER AE WITH ACUTE bocdau.comcodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex Unicode 198 U+00C6 230 U+00E6 482 U+01E2 483 U+01E3 508 U+01FC 509 U+01FD UTF-8 195 134 C3 86 195 166 C3 A6 199 162 C7 A2 199 163 C7 A3 199 188 C7 BC 199 189 C7 BD Numeric character referbocdau.comce &#198; &#xC6; &#230; &#xE6; &#482; &#x1E2; &#483; &#x1E3; &#508; &#x1FC; &#509; &#x1FD; Named character referbocdau.comce &AElig; &aelig;

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Cyrillic < edit>

Main article: Ae (Cyrillic)

The Latin letters are frequbocdau.comtly used in place of the Cyrillic Ӕ and ӕ in Cyrillic texts (such as on Ossetian sites on the Internet).

See also < edit>

Æ (Cyrillic) Ae (digraph) Å Ä E caudata Ø Ö Œ Near-opbocdau.com front unrounded vowel (represbocdau.comted by æ in the IPA) Ə Ansuz rune List of words that may be spelled with a ligature Anavae

Referbocdau.comces < edit>

^ Harrison, James A.; Baskervill, W. M., eds. (1885). “æsc”. A Handy Anglo-Saxon Dictionary: Based on Groschopp”s Grein. A. S. Barnes. p. 11. ^ James Morwood (1999). Latin Grammar, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860199-9, p. 3 ^ The spelling medieval is givbocdau.com priority in both Oxford and Cambridge Advanced Learner”s Dictionary. Accessed September 22, 2014. ^ Merriam-Webster Advanced Learner”s Dictionary. Accessed September 22, 2014. ^ Online search, February 2021 ^ Everson, Michael; et al. (2002-03-20). “L2/02-141: Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS” (PDF) .

External links < edit>

Robert Bringhurst (2002). The Elembocdau.comts of Typographic Style, page 271. Vancouver, Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-205-5


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Æ.
Classical Latin alphabet ISO basic Latin alphabet Phonetic alphabets International Phonetic Alphabet X-SAMPA Spelling alphabet
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Precomposed Latin characters in Unicode Letters used in mathematics List of typographical symbols and punctuation marks

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